Traditional Construction vs. Modular Housing Construction: Challenges and Benefits
For many years the construction industry has failed to match other sectors when it comes to productivity performance, the certainty of delivery, skills shortages, and transparency. This has led to many construction projects being completed over budget and behind schedule.
Modular and offsite construction brings about an opportunity for a step-change in the
industry. It reverses many aspects of traditional building onsite and instead uses offsite
Modular construction has brought about changes in the technological and economic
environment which is attracting new interest and investment. So this will be the time where modular construction will have a more sustainable and widespread impact.
The different methods associated with modular construction can provide a better quality of building components due to the increased control over the design, build, and manufacturing process. It has the potential to overcome the challenges the industry faces today, especially COVID-19.
Modular construction offers an alternative to current methods of construction as it allows
innovative improvements across the asset life cycle in terms of cost, time, quality, and health and safety. The main benefit that modular construction brings compared to traditional methods of construction is predictability.
It can offer an alternative to the current construction existing state of affairs by promising
innovative improvements across the asset lifecycle in terms of time, cost, quality, and health and safety. however the key benefit of offsite construction is that it also offers predictability.
The reasons stated above are why offsite construction and modularization of the construction processes within a controlled factory environment have been described as a potential game-changer in meeting the housing shortages in the US and addressing the issues associated with traditional forms of construction.
With a shift in the construction approach from a traditional approach to a modular approach, it would allow greater quality control over what is built and where and also an increase in predictability, delivering projects on time and within the budget.
Many of the benefits brought about by modular construction include:
Improvements in health and safety - offsite construction means workers are placed in a
a more controlled environment where many of the risks associated with traditional construction sites can be avoided, such as unfavorable weather conditions and working at heights
A reduction in waste - Within controlled storage, there is less chance of materials being
damaged from weather conditions. Also, excess materials can be recycled onsite more
Cost-effective - With flexible payment options available and less time needed to construct
projects, it can save on labor costs. The design services associated with traditional methods of construction can be expensive, however modular construction usually includes
this, therefore, saving on architect costs as well as on top of building expense
Speed of build - Modular buildings can be completed up to 30-50% faster than traditional
construction methods. This is because the indoor construction process can take place
alongside site and foundation work and weather delays are eliminated.
Reduction in GHG emissions - By producing buildings in a factory setting, it is easier to
control the use of energy compared to an open construction site. Also, producing buildings close to home will reduce the carbon emissions that are often generated on large construction sites due to lorry traffic.
Figure 2 - Comparison of CO2 output from various conventional (Cov) forms of onsite
construction against various methods of offsite modular (Mod) construction (Krug and Miles, 2013)
Research published by McKinsey Global Institute and McKinsey Capital Projects &
Infrastructure Practice highlighted that the market value for modular in new real-estate
construction alone could be as high as $130bn in Europe and the US by 2030.
Offsite manufacturing is faster than the equivalent building process onsite, mainly because of the controlled factory environment, but also due to enhanced levels of automation, the ability to repeat activities, and the ability to deliver modules onsite, on time.
The stigma associated with modular housing
Modular housing has created a stigma among many people in the US. The stereotypical
‘double-wide’ image, which became popular during the 70s in the United States, is what
many people associate with modular construction. Communities may not differentiate
between a modular home and a mobile home. However, there is a distinct difference
between the mobile home and high quality, well designed, modern modular home.